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What is CA?

Chartered Accountants (CA) is a brought together qualification test to do CA course, which is led by Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). Best CA Coaching in Chandigarh. The test is taken after 10+2 for induction into Chartered Accountancy course.

[Syllabus specified by the Council under Regulation 31 (ii) of the Chartered Accountants Regulations, 1988]

Curriculum for Final Course Group I
Paper 1: Financial Reporting (100 Marks)
Paper 2: Strategic Financial Management (100 Marks)
Paper 3: Advanced Auditing and Professional Ethics (100 Marks) Paper 4: Corporate and Allied Laws (100 Marks)
Section A: Company Law (70 Marks) Section B: Allied Laws (30 Marks)
Group II
Paper 5: Advanced Management Accounting (100 Marks) Paper 6: Information Systems Control and Audit (100 Marks) Paper 7: Direct Tax Laws (100 Marks)
Paper 8: Indirect Tax Laws (100 Marks)
Section A: Central Excise (25 Marks) Section B: Service Tax (50 Marks)
Section C: Customs & Foreign Trade Policy (25 Marks)

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge
(a) To gain ability to analyze financial statements including consolidated financial statements of group companies and financial reports of various types of entities,
(b) To gain ability to apply valuation principles,
(c) To familiarise with recent developments in the area of financial reporting,
(d) To gain ability to solve financial reporting and valuation cases.
1. Accounting Standards (ASs) and Guidance Notes on various accounting aspects issued by the ICAI and their applications.
2. Corporate Financial Reporting – Issues and problems with special reference to published financial statements.
3. Accounting for Corporate Restructuring (including inter-company holdings).
4. Consolidated Financial Statements of Group Companies
Concept of a Group, purposes of consolidated financial statements, minority interest, Goodwill, Consolidation procedures – Minority interests, Goodwill, Treatment of pre- acquisition and post- acquisition profit.
Consolidation with two or more subsidiaries, consolidation with foreign subsidiaries. Consolidated profit and loss account, balance sheet and cash flow statement.
Treatment of investment in associates in consolidated financial statements. Treatment of investments in joint ventures in consolidated financial statements.
5. Accounting and reporting of financial instruments
Meaning, recognition, derecognition and offset, compound financial instruments Measurement of financial instruments
Hedge accounting Disclosures
6. Share based payments
Meaning, Equity settled transactions, Transaction with employees and non- employees Determination of fair value of equity instruments
Vesting conditions
Modification, cancellation and settlement Disclosures

7. Financial Reporting by Mutual funds, Non-banking finance companies, Merchant bankers, Stock and commodity market intermediaries.
8. Valuation
(a) Concept of Valuation
(b) Valuation of Tangible Fixed Assets
(c) Valuation of Intangibles including brand valuation and valuation of goodwill
(d) Valuation of liabilities
(e) Valuation of Shares
(f) Valuation of Business
9. Developments in Financial Reporting
(a) Value Added Statement
(b) Economic Value Added, Market Value Added, Shareholders’ Value Added
(c) Human Resource Reporting
Note– If either old Accounting Standards (ASs), Guidance Notes (GNs), Announcements and Limited Revisions to ASs are withdrawn or new ASs, GNs, Announcements and Limited Revisions to AS are issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India in place of existing ASs, GNs, Announcements and Limited Revisions to AS, the syllabus will accordingly exclude / include such new developments in the place of the existing ones with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge
To apply financial management theories and techniques for strategic decision making.
1. Financial Policy and Corporate Strategy
Strategic decision making framework
Interface of Financial Policy and strategic management Balancing financial goals vis-à-vis sustainable growth.
2. Project Planning and Capital Budgeting
Feasibility study
Cash flow Projections – Impact of taxation, depreciation, inflation and working capital
Capital Budgeting Decisions – Certainty Equivalent approach, Evaluation of Risky Investment Proposals, Risk and Return analysis, Simulation and decision tree analysis, Sensitivity analysis Capital Rationing, Adjusted Net Present Value, Replacement decisions, Application of Real Options in capital budgeting, Impact of inflation on capital budgeting decisions

Preparation of Project Report Social cost benefit analysis.
3. Leasing decision including cross border leasing
4. Dividend Decisions
Dividend theories, Determinants of dividend policies.
5. (a) Indian Capital Market including role of various primary and secondary market institutions
(b) Capital Market Instruments
Financial derivatives – stock futures, stock options, index futures, index options
Option valuation techniques : Binomial model, Black Scholes Option Pricing Model, Greeks – Delta, Gamma, Theta, Rho and Vega
Pricing of Futures – Cost of carry model Imbedded derivatives
(c) Commodity derivatives
(d) OTC derivatives -Swaps, Swaptions, Forward Rate Agreements (FRAs), Caps, Floors and Collors.
6. Security Analysis
Fundamental analysis – Economic analysis, Industry analysis and Company Analysis
Bond valuation, Price Yield relationship, Bond Price forecasting – application of duration and convexity, Yield curve strategies
Technical Analysis – market cycle model and basic trend identification, different types of charting, support and resistance, price patterns, moving averages, Bollinger Bands, momentum analysis.
7. Portfolio Theory and Asset Pricing
Efficient Market Theory – Random walk theory; Markowitz model of risk return optimization Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) Sharpe Index Model
Portfolio Management – Formulation, Monitoring and Evaluation Equity Style Management
Principles and Management of Hedge Funds International Portfolio Management.
8. Financial Services in India
Investment Banking Retail Banking
On Line Share Trading Depository Service.

9. (a) Mutual Funds: Regulatory framework, formulation, monitoring and evaluation of various schemes of Mutual funds, Money market mutual funds.
(b) Exchange Traded Funds.
10. Money Market operations
11. (a) Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Institutional Investment.
(b) International Financial Management
Raising of capital abroad – American Depository Receipts, Global Depository Receipts, External Commercial Borrowings and Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds
International Capital Budgeting
International Working Capital Management.
12. Foreign Exchange Exposure and Risk Management Exchange rate determination, Exchange rate forecasting Foreign currency market
Foreign exchange derivatives – Forward, futures, options and swaps Management of transaction, translation and economic exposures
Hedging currency risk.
13. Mergers, Acquisitions and Restructuring
Meaning of mergers and acquisition, categories, purposes
Process of mergers and acquisition – Identification and valuation of the target, acquisition through negotiation, due diligence, post – merger integration
Legal and regulatory requirements Merger and Acquisition agreement Reverse merger
Potential adverse competitive effects of mergers
Corporate Takeovers: Motivations, Co-insurance effect, Cross-border takeovers, Forms of takeovers, Takeover defenses
Going Private and Other Control Transactions: Leveraged Buyouts (LBOs), Management Buyouts (MBOs), Spin Offs and Asset Divestitures
Corporate Restructuring : Refinancing and rescue financing, reorganizations of debtors and creditors, Sale of assets, targeted stock offerings, downsizing and layoff programmes, negotiated wage give-backs, employee buyouts.

(One Paper- Three hours – 100 marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge

(a) To gain expert knowledge of current auditing practices and procedures and apply them in auditing engagements,
(b) To develop ability to solve cases relating to audit engagements.
1. Auditing Standards, Statements and Guidance Notes
Auditing and Assurance Standards (AASs); Statements and Guidance Notes on Auditing issued by the ICAI; Significant differences between Auditing and Assurance Standards and International Standards on Auditing.
2. Audit strategy, planning and programming
Planning the flow of audit work; audit strategy, planning programme and importance of supervision: review of audit notes and working papers; drafting of reports; principal’s ultimate responsibility; extent of delegation; control over quality of audit work; reliance on the work of other auditor, internal auditor or an expert.
3. Risk Assessment and Internal Control
Evaluation of internal control procedures; techniques including questionnaire, flowchart; internal audit and external audit, coordination between the two.
4. Audit under computerized information system (CIS) environment
Special aspects of CIS Audit Environment, need for review of internal control especially procedure controls and facility controls. Approach to audit in CIS Environment, use of computers for internal and management audit purposes: audit tools, test packs, computerized audit programmes; Special Aspects in Audit of E-Commerce Transaction.
5. Special audit techniques
(a) Selective verification; statistical sampling: Special audit procedures; physical verification of assets, direct confirmation of debtors and creditors
(b) Analytical review procedures
(c) Risk-based auditing.
6. Audit of limited companies
Relevant Provisions under the Companies Act, 2013 relating to Audit and Auditors and Rules made thereunder; Audit of branches: joint audits; Dividends and divisible profits – financial, legal, and policy considerations.
7. Rights, duties, and liabilities of auditors; third party liability.
8. Audit reports; Qualifications, notes on accounts, distinction between notes and qualifications, detailed observations by the statutory auditor to the management vis-a-vis obligations of reporting to the members.
9. Audit Committee and Corporate Governance
10. Provisions under the Companies Act, 2013 in respect of Accounts of Companies and Rules made thereunder. Audit of Consolidated Financial Statements, Audit Reports and Certificates for Special Purpose engagements; Certificates under the Payment of Bonus Act, import/export

control authorities, etc.; Specific services to non-audit clients; Certificate on Corporate Governance.
11. Special features of audit of banks, insurance companies, co-operative societies and non-banking financial companies.
12. Audit under Fiscal Laws, viz, Direct and Indirect Tax Laws.
13. Cost audit
14. Special audit assignments like audit of bank borrowers, audit of stock and commodity exchange intermediaries and depositories; inspection of special entities like banks, financial institutions, mutual funds, stock brokers.
15. Special features in audit of public sector companies. Directions of Comptroller and Auditor General of India to statutory auditors; Concepts of propriety and efficiency audit.
16. Internal audit, management and operational audit Nature and purpose, organisation, audit programme, behavioural problems; Internal Audit Standards issued by the ICAI; Specific areas of management and operational audit involving review of internal control, purchasing operations, manufacturing operations, selling and distribution, personnel policies, systems and procedures. Aspects relating to concurrent audit.
17. Investigation and Due Diligence.
18. Concept of peer review
19. Salient features of Sarbanes – Oxley Act, 2002 with special reference to reporting on internal control.
20. Professional Ethics
Code of Ethics with special reference to the relevant provisions of The Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 and the Regulations thereunder.
(i) The provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 which are still in force would form part of the syllabus till the time their corresponding or new provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 are enforced.
(ii) If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations, the syllabus would include the corresponding provisions of such new legislations with effect from a date notified by the Institute.

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)


Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge

To be able to analyze and apply various provisions of the Company Law in practical situations
1. The Companies Act, 2013 and Rules framed thereunder in its entirety with specific reference to
(a) Declaration and payment of Dividend
(b) Accounts and audit
(c) Appointment and Qualifications of Directors
(d) Appointment and remuneration of Managerial Personnel
(e) Meetings of Board and its powers
(f) Inspection, inquiry and Investigation
(g) Compromises, Arrangements and Amalgamations
(h) Prevention of Oppression and Mismanagement
(i) Revival and Rehabilitation of Sick Companies
(j) Winding Up
(k) Producer Companies
(l) Companies incorporated outside India
(m) Offences and Penalties
(n) E-governance
(o) National Company Law Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal
(p) Special Courts
(q) Miscellaneous Provisions
2. Corporate Secretarial Practice–Drafting of Resolution, Minutes, Notices and Reports
Note: The provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 which are still in force would form part of the syllabus till the time their corresponding or new provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 are enforced.

To develop ability to analyse the requirements of laws stated in the Section.
3. An overview of the following laws –
(a) The Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, Rules, Regulations and Guidelines issued thereunder.
(b) Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956
(c) The Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999
(d) The Competition Act, 2002
(e) The Banking Regulation Act, 1949, The Insurance Act, 1938, The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999, The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002

(f) The Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002
4. Interpretation of Statutes, Deeds and Documents.
Note: If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations, the syllabus would include the corresponding provisions of such new legislations with effect from a date notified by the Institute.

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced Knowledge
To apply various management accounting techniques to all types of organizations for planning, decision making and control purposes in practical situations.
To develop ability to apply quantitative techniques to business problems.
1. Cost Management
(a) Developments in the Business Environment; Just in Time; Manufacturing Resources Planning; (MRP); Automated Manufacturing; Synchronous Manufacturing and Back Flush Systems to reflect the importance of accurate bills of material and routings; World Class Manufacturing; Total Quality Management.
(b) Activity Based Approaches to management and cost analysis
(c) Analysis of Common Costs in manufacturing and service industry
(d) Techniques for Profit Improvement, Cost Reduction, and Value Analysis
(e) Throughput Accounting
(f) Target Costing; Cost Ascertainment and Pricing of Products and Services
(g) Life Cycle Costing
(h) Shut Down and Divestment.
2. Cost Volume Profit Analysis
(a) Relevant Cost
(b) Product Sales Pricing and Mix
(c) Limiting Factors
(d) Multiple Scarce Resource Problems
(e) Decisions about Alternatives such as Make or Buy, Selection of Products, etc.
3. Pricing Decisions
(a) Pricing of a Finished Product
(b) Theory of Price
(c) Pricing Policy
(d) Principles of Product Pricing
(e) New Product Pricing
(f) Pricing Strategies
(g) Pricing of Services

(h) Pareto Analysis
4. Budgets and Budgetary Control
The Budget Manual, Preparation and Monitoring Procedures, Budget Variances, Flexible Budgets, Preparation of Functional Budget for Operating and Non-Operating Functions, Cash Budgets, Capital Expenditure Budget, Master Budget, Principal Budget Factors.
5. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis
Types of Standards and Sources of Standard Cost Information; Evolution of Standards, Continuous – Improvement; Keeping Standards Meaningful and Relevant; Variance Analysis; Disposal of Variances.
(a) Investigation and Interpretation of Variances and their Inter Relationship
(b) Behavioural Considerations.
6. Transfer Pricing
(a) Objectives of Transfer Pricing
(b) Methods of Transfer Pricing
(c) Conflict between a Division and a Company
(d) Multi-National Transfer Pricing.
7. Cost Management in Service Sector
8. Uniform Costing and Inter Firm Comparison
9. Profitability Analysis – Product Wise / Segment Wise / Customer Wise
10. Financial Decision Modeling
(a) Linear Programming
(b) Network Analysis – PERT/CPM, Resource Allocation and Resource Leveling.
(c) Transportation Problems
(d) Assignment Problems
(e) Simulation
(f) Learning Curve Theory
(g) Time Series Forecasting*
(h) Sampling and Test of Hypothesis*
* The council has decided to exclude these topics effective from May, 2011 examination onwards.

(One Paper – Three hours – 100 marks)
(Revised Syllabus – Applicable from November, 2014 Examination onwards) Level of Knowledge: Advanced Knowledge
Objective: “To develop competencies and skill-sets in evaluation of controls and relevant evidence gathering in an IT environment using IT tools and techniques for effective and efficient performance of accounting, assurance and compliance services provided by a Chartered Accountant”.
1. Concepts of Governance and Management of Information Systems
Governance, Risk and compliance and relationship between governance and management.
Role of information technology and IS Strategy in business strategy, operations and control , business value from use of IT, business impact of IS risks different types of Information Systems Risks, IS Risk management overview, IT Compliance overview – Role and responsibilities of top management as regards IT-GRC. Role of Information Systems Assurance. Overview of Governance of Enterprise IT and COBIT
2. Information Systems Concepts
Overview of information systems in IT environment and practical aspects of application of information systems in enterprise processes. Information as a key business asset and its relation to business objectives, business processes and relative importance of information systems from strategic and operational perspectives. Various types of business applications, overview of underlying IT technologies.
3. Protection of Information Systems
Need for protection of Information systems, types of controls, IT general controls, logical access controls & application controls. Technologies and security management features, IS Security Policies, procedures, practices, standards and guidelines, IT controls and control objectives, Role of technology systems in control monitoring, segregation of duties. Impact of IT controls on Internal controls over financial reporting, cyber frauds and control failures.
4. Business Continuity Planning and Disaster recovery planning
Assessing Business Continuity Management, Business Impact Analysis and Business Continuity Plans, Disaster recovery from perspective of going concern, Recovery Strategies
5. Acquisition, Development and Implementation of Information Systems (SDLC)
Business process design (integrated systems, automated, and manual interfaces), Software procurement, RFP process, evaluation of IT proposals, computing ROI, Computing Cost of IT implementation and cost benefit analysis, systematic approach to SDLC and review of SDLC controls at different stages.
6. Auditing & Information Systems

Different types of IS audit and assurance engagements. Evaluating IT dependencies for audit planning. Overview of continuous auditing. Auditing Information Systems- Approach methodology, and standards for auditing information systems. IS Audit planning, performing an IS audit, rules of digital evidence, best practices and standards for IS audit.
Reviewing General Controls, Application Controls, Application control reviews: Review of controls at various levels/layers such as: Parameters, user creation, granting of access rights, input, processing and output controls.
7. Information Technology Regulatory issues
Overview of Specific section of IT Act 2008 & Rules as relevant for assurance: Electronic Contracting, digital signatures, cyber offences, etc. Need for systems audit as per various regulations such as: SEBI Clause 49 listing requirements and internal controls, systems control & audit requirements as per RBI, SEBI, IRDA. Concepts of Cyber forensics/Cyber Fraud investigation, Overview of Information Security Standards ISO 27001, ISAE 3402/SA 402, ITIL
8. Emerging Technology
Overview of Cloud Computing, Software as a Service, Mobile Computing & BYOD, Web 2.0 & social media, Green IT and related security and audit issues

(One paper ─ Three hours – 100 Marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge
(a) To gain advanced knowledge of the provisions of direct tax laws,
(b) To acquire the ability to apply the knowledge of the provisions of direct tax laws to various situations in actual practice.
The Income-tax Act, 1961 and Rules thereunder
While covering the direct tax laws, students should familiarise themselves with considerations relevant to tax management. These may include tax considerations with regard to specific management decisions, foreign collaboration agreements, international taxation, amalgamations, tax incentives, personnel compensation plans, inter-relationship of taxation and accounting, with special reference to relevant accounting standards and other precautions to be observed to maximise tax relief. Further, they should have a basic understanding about the ethical considerations in tax management and compliance with taxation laws.
Note – If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations relating to income tax and wealth tax, the syllabus will accordingly include such new legislations in the place of the existing legislations with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

(Revised Syllabus – Applicable from November, 2014 Examination onwards)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge
(a) To gain advanced knowledge of the principles of the laws relating to central excise, service tax and customs
(b) To acquire the ability to apply the knowledge of the provisions of the above-mentioned laws to various situations in actual practice
Section A: Central Excise (25 marks)
Central Excise Act, 1944 and the Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985
Section B: Service Tax (50 marks)
Law relating to service tax as contained in the Finance Act, 1994 as amended from time to time
Section C: Customs and Foreign Trade Policy (25 marks)
Customs Act, 1962, Customs Tariff Act, 1975 and Foreign Trade Policy to the extent relevant to the Customs Law
Note – If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations relating to central excise, customs and service tax, the syllabus will accordingly include such new legislations in place of the existing legislations with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.

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